In reading this book by James R. Clapper, I found this very interesting distinction. I use the word collaborate often, but now I see this defining dissimilarity. Yes, sometimes I collaborate, but I do prefer to “act jointly”.
“When agencies cooperate, one defines the problem and seeks help with it. When they act jointly, the problem and options for action are defined differently from the start. Individuals from different backgrounds come together in analyzing a case and planning how to manage it.” from “Facts and Fears: Hard Truths from a Life in Intelligence” by James R. Clapper, Trey Brown